Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome
- Guillermo E. Umpierrez, MD, FACP,
- Mary Beth Murphy, RN, MS, CDE, MBA and
- Abbas E. Kitabchi, PhD, MD, FACP, FACE
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome.
Guillermo E. Umpierrez, MD, FACP, is an associate professor of medicine, Mary Beth Murphy, RN, MS, CDE, MBA, is research nurse director, and Abbas E. Kitabchi, PhD, MD, FACP, FACE, is a professor of medicine and director of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis.
- American Diabetes Association