Current and Future Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents

Abstract

In Brief The metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are occurring at alarming rates in children. Obesity plays an important role in the increased prevalence of its comorbid conditions including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification is the mainstay of prevention and treatment for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; however, it can be costly and labor-intensive. Pharmacotherapy is considered a second line of therapy in adults, but its use in children is controversial. This article reviews current and potential future drugs for the treatment of obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes in children. Surgical procedures for treating severely obese adolescents are also discussed.

Footnotes

  • Johanna T. Mallare, MD, FAAP, is an assistant professor of pediatrics in the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism of the College of Medicine at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, and Ana H. Karabell, MD, is a pediatric endocrinology fellow in the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, of the College of Medicine at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and LeBonheur Children's Medical Center in Memphis. Pedro Velasquez-Mieyer, MD, is a faculty member in the epidemiology program of the College of Graduate Health Sciences and an assistant professor in the College of Nursing and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, of the same institution. Sarah R.S. Stender, MD, FAAP, is an assistant professor of pediatrics and adolescent medicine in the Division of General Pediatrics, and Michael L. Christensen, PharmD, is a professor of pharmacy and pediatrics in the Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacy of the same institution.

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