TABLE 1.

Descriptive Statistics of Study Participants (n = 34)

Immigrant status
 Immigrant85.3 (29)
 U.S.-born14.7 (5)
Marital status
 Single26.5 (9)
 Married or cohabitating73.5 (25)
Education level
 Less than high school55.9 (19)
 High school or more44.1 (15)
Employment
 Unemployed79.4 (27)
 Employed full-time20.6 (7)
Annual household income
 <$20,00050.0 (17)
 >$20,00041.2 (14)
 Did not know08.8 (3)
Diabetes diagnosis
 Any type26.5 (9)
 None73.5 (25
 Gestational14.7 (5)
 Non-gestational85.3 (29)
Medication/vitamin use
 Diabetes-related23.5 (8)
 Other medications or prenatal vitamins47.0 (16)
 None reported23.5 (8)
 Missing5.9 (2)
Prenatal depression status
 Depressed32.4 (11)
 Not depressed67.6 (23)
BMI
 Underweight or normal (BMI ≤24.9 kg/m2)23.3 (7)
 Overweight or obese (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2)76.7 (23)
Pre-pregnancy self-rated health
 Poor0 (0)
 Fair23.5 (8)
 Good20.6 (7)
 Very good35.3 (12)
 Excellent20.6 (7)
Pregnancy self-rated health
 Poor8.8 (3)
 Fair32.4 (11)
 Good17.6 (6)
 Very good20.6 (7)
 Excellent20.6 (7)
Age (years), mean (SD)29.3 (5.9)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise noted. BMI is based on 30 women. Four women were lost to follow-up and did not attend the laboratory visit where weight and height were recorded.