TABLE 5.

Changes in Key Outcome Variables in the Intervention Group

nPre-InterventionPost-InterventionChange
Diabetes knowledge
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Pa
Percentage of correctly answered diabetes knowledge questions (overall)8377.2 (17.9)86.3 (13.6)9.2 (16.6)<0.0001
Percentage of correctly answered diabetes knowledge questions (individual questions)%%%
 Frequency of eye exam8795.497.72.30.63b
 What is a normal A1C?7570.794.724.00.0001b
 Normal fasting blood glucose range7984.896.211.40.01b
 Symptoms of low blood glucose8275.682.97.30.29 b
 Symptoms of high blood glucose8146.942.0–4.90.61b
 Frequency of foot check8167.990.122.20.000 b
 What can treat low blood glucose?7884.694.910.30.04b
 Change in blood glucose when exercising7772.779.26.50.36b
 Food to raise blood glucose the most7777.992.214.30.01b
 Complication of diabetes7893.697.43.80.45b
Self-efficacyMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Pa
Self-efficacy overall score842.77 (0.69)3.36 (0.62)0.60 (0.73)<0.0001
Self-efficacy individual question scores
 Control diabetes so does not interfere843.01 (0.94)3.50 (0.78)0.49 (1.01)<0.0001
 Prevent low glucose during exercise822.43 (1.20)3.55 (0.80)1.12 (1.31)<0.0001
 Choose good food when hungry802.75 (0.99)3.39 (0.75)0.64 (1.14)<0.0001
 Exercise 15–30 minutes 4-5 times a week802.78 (1.12)3.01 (1.08)0.24 (1.22)0.09
 Follow diet when cooking for others832.72 (1.00)3.31 (0.88)0.59 (1.23)<0.0001
 Judge changes in illness and when to go to doctor803.13 (1.07)3.51 (0.84)0.39 (1.13)0.003
 Know if blood glucose is too low or high812.72 (1.18)3.59 (0.74)0.88 (1.19)<0.0001
 Eat meal every 4–5 hours802.73 (1.14)3.19 (1.01)0.46 (1.31)0.0023
Self-careMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Pa
Self-Care overall score862.35 (0.51)2.83 (0.45)0.48 (0.55)<0.0001
Self-care individual question scores
 Followed eating plan in the past week852.34 (0.82)2.86 (0.66)0.52 (1.00)<0.0001
 Checked blood glucose as often as should792.39 (1.23)3.11 (1.01)0.72 (1.21)<0.0001
 Followed eating plan in the past month832.25 (0.70)2.83 (0.62)0.58 (0.81)<0.0001
 Participated in 30 minutes of physical activity852.06 (0.92)2.68 (0.86)0.62 (1.02)<0.0001
 Had 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables842.31 (0.94)2.55 (0.91)0.24 (1.03)0.0363
 Inspected inside of shoes732.10 (1.22)2.73 (1.12)0.63 (1.29)<0.0001
 Participated in specific exercise session861.88 (0.90)2.53 (0.99)0.65 (1.07)<0.0001
 Spaced out carbohydrates during day802.05 (0.91)2.66 (0.83)0.61 (1.16)<0.0001
 Frequency of checking blood glucose862.84 (1.19)3.43 (0.86)0.59 (1.14)<0.0001
 Frequency of eating high-fat food842.99 (0.61)2.83 (0.71)–0.15 (0.78)0.0740
Self-careMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Pa
 Frequency of foot checking782.76 (1.13)3.05 (1.06)0.29 (1.19)0.0310
 Smoked cigarettes793.85 (0.60)3.71 (0.82)–0.14 (0.76)0.1091
DistressMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Pa
Distress overall score751.61 (0.69)1.46 (0.58)–0.15 (0.65)0.0546
Distress individual question scores
 Felt nothing could cheer you up741.62 (0.95)1.35 (0.71)–0.27 (0.82)0.0057
 Felt hopeless711.34 (0.72)1.18 (0.49)–0.15 (0.67)0.0549
 Felt restless or fidgety731.77 (0.98)1.62 (0.81)–0.15 (0.92)0.1674
 Felt everything was an effort731.86 (0.92)1.67 (0.88)–0.19 (1.14)0.1544
 Felt worthless721.35 (0.73)1.21 (0.58)–0.14 (0.63)0.0675
 Felt nervous761.71 (0.91)1.63 (0.85)-0.08 (1.00)0.4949
Health statusMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Pa
Health status overall score793.22 (0.78)2.72 (0.68)0.49 (0.89)<0.0001
A1C
All participants with A1C reported477.31 (1.81)7.46 (1.48)0.15 (1.40)0.46
A1C among those with baseline A1C ≥8%)910.59 (1.44)9.41 (1.76)–1.18 (2.01)0.12
  • a P for paired t test unless otherwise noted.

  • b P for McNemar’s test.