TABLE 2.

Intervention Instruments

Diabetes self-efficacya
  1. How confident do you feel that you can eat your meals every 4 to 5 hours every day, including breakfast every day?

  2. How confident do you feel that you can follow your diet when you have to prepare or share food with other people who do not have diabetes?

  3. How confident do you feel that you can choose the appropriate foods to eat when you are hungry (for example, snacks?)

  4. How confident do you feel that you can exercise 15 to 30 minutes, 4 to 5 times a week?

  5. How confident do you feel that you can do something to prevent your blood glucose from dropping when you exercise?

  6. How confident do you feel that you know what to do when your blood glucose level goes higher or lower than it should be?

  7. How confident do you feel that you can judge when the changes in your illness mean you should visit the doctor?

  8. How confident do you feel that you can control your diabetes so that it does not interfere with the things you want to do?

Diabetes self-careb
  1. How many of the last 7 days have you followed a healthful eating plan?

  2. On average, over the past month, how many days per week have you followed your eating plan?

  3. On how many of the last 7 days did you eat 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables?

  4. On how many of the last 7 days did you eat high-fat foods, such as red meat or full-fat dairy products?

  5. On how many of the last 7 days did you space your carbohydrates evenly through the day?

  6. On how many of the last 7 days did you participate in at least 30 minutes of physical activity?

  7. On how many of the last 7 days did you participate in a specific exercise session (such as swimming, walking, biking) other than what you do around the house or as part of your work?

  8. On how many of the last 7 days did you test your blood sugar?

  9. On how many of the last 7 days did you test your blood sugar the number of times recommended by your health care provider?

  10. On how many of the last 7 days did you check your feet?

  11. On how many of the last 7 days did you inspect the inside of your shoes?

  12. Have you smoked a cigarette—even one puff—during the past 7 days? If yes, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? Number of cigarettes:

Psychological distressc
  1. During the last 30 days, about how often did you feel so depressed that nothing could cheer you up?

  2. During the last 30 days, about how often did you feel hopeless?

  3. During the last 30 days, about how often did you feel restless or fidgety?

  4. During the last 30 days, about how often did you feel that everything was an effort?

  5. During the last 30 days, about how often did you feel worthless?

  6. During the last 30 days, about how often did you feel nervous?

  • a Scale from 1 = “I don’t feel sure” to 4 = “I feel very sure.”

  • b Scale from 1 = “None of the days” to 4 = “All of the days.”

  • c Scale from 1 = “None of the time” to 4 = “Most of the time.”