Table 1.

Associations Among Socioeconomic Status, Access to Care, and Outcomes From the Pittsburgh Epidemi ology of Diabetes Complications Study (1996-98)

EducationP-valueIncomeP-value
≤High School>High School≤$20,000>$20,000
n = 121n = 275n = 77n = 300
Access to care
Health insurance (% yes)92.594.90.3584.296.70.0002
Problems obtaining care (% yes)12.811.40.6821.39.80.006
Forgone care (% yes)14.813.60.7518.912.80.17
Regular source of care (% yes)82.478.20.3577.679.30.76
Physician visit in previous year (% yes)92.891.40.6684.193.20.01
Specialty care (% yes)36.756.80.000239.552.40.05
Self-management
Testing ≥ 4 times a day69.272.80.4776.770.00.26
Diabetes education in previous 3 years (% yes)13.620.20.1223.315.80.13
Outcomes
Fair or poor health (% yes)35.820.40.00140.820.30.0002
HbA1 (%) mean (SD)10.4 (1.8)9.9 (1.7)0.00510.5 (1.6)9.9 (1.6)0.009