TABLE 3.

Support Systems and Strategies to Improve Diabetes Management

Support SystemsStrategies
Family, friends, and caregivers1. Determine degree of involvement in diabetes management by family, friends, and caretakers in collaboration with patients (when possible)
2. Provide diabetes education and self-management skills to family, friends, and caretakers who help care for patients’ needs
Home care services1. Evaluate patients’ needs for home- and community-based services
2. Consider referral options, including nutrition counseling, physical and occupational therapy, social services, and mental health services
Case management1. Use case managers to evaluate patients’ care needs and help in coordination of and transportation to appointments, delivery and administration of medications, food preparation or delivery, and other services
2. Access community agencies offering programs designed to help individuals with special needs
3. Identify resources and support systems for patients and their families
Long-term care and skilled nursing facilities1. Prepare a realistic diabetes management plan for patients
2. Provide education for facility staff and caregivers
3. Involve facility administration, nursing, dietary, and other staff members
Hospice/palliative care1. Care for patients with an emphasis on comfort and symptom control
2. Preserve patients’ dignity
3. Prevent patients’ discomfort and hospitalizations
4. Respect patients’ right to refuse treatment