TABLE 3.

SCFAs (4,30)

SCFAs include butyrate, acetate, and propionate. They are produced by fermentable prebiotics and other soluble dietary fiber and provide the host with many health benefits. SCFAs:
• Serve as a main fuel source for colonocytes, which strengthen the epithelium, potentially decreasing the translocation of antigens and LPS, and reduce endotoxemia and insulin resistance (butyrate)
• Reduce colonic pH, which inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria (butyrate)
• Enhance mineral absorption
• Stimulate the release of PYY and GLP-1, which decreases appetite and improves insulin sensitivity (propionate, acetate, and butyrate)
• Are metabolized in the liver and may play a role in reducing serum cholesterol levels (propionate)
• May enhance fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis (butyrate)
• May activate intestinal gluconeogenesis, contributing to weight loss and glucose control (butyrate, propionate)