TABLE 2.

Interventions Focused on Mindful Eating and Eating-Related Outcomes in Adult Samples

ReferenceSampleResearch DesignMindfulness Intervention ComponentsSelected Results
Kristeller & Hallett, 1999 (15)Women with BMI >27 kg/m2 with diagnosed BED (n = 18)Pre- and post-test design with post-test assessment at 3-week follow-up; no comparison conditionMB-EAT intervention: seven group sessions included general, eating, and mini meditations; homework included daily meditation and mindful eating exercises• Significant change at 3-week follow-up in frequency of binge episodes, eating control, hunger awareness, and satiety awareness* (all P <0.001)
Dalen et al., 2010 (23)Adults (70% female) with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 recruited through YMCA (n = 10)Pre- and post-test design with 3-month follow-up; no comparison conditionMindful Eating and Living intervention: six weekly, 2-hour group sessions included sitting, eating, and walking meditations and light yoga; homework included 10 minutes daily of meditation and mindful eating practice• Significant change at 3-month follow-up in cognitive restraint of eating (P = 0.03), disinhibited eating (P = 0.02), and scores on binge eating scale (P = 0.001)
Daubenmier et al., 2011 (9)Premenopausal women with BMI 25–40 kg/m2 who reported being stressed (n = 47)Randomized controlled trial with waitlist control conditionIncluded components of MB-EAT intervention: nine weekly, 2.5-hour group sessions and one 7-hour silent retreat included body scan, light yoga, and sitting, eating, loving kindness, and forgiveness meditations; homework included 30-minute meditations 6 days/week and mindful eating practice• Significant difference between groups in the change in external-based eating (P = 0.046)
• Significant reduction among obese participants only in the treatment group in cortisol awakening response (P = 0.03)
Kristeller et al., 2013 (21)Adults (88% female) with BMI ≥28 kg/m2 meeting behavioral criteria for BED (n = 140)Randomized controlled trial with 3- to 6-month follow-up; comparison conditions included psychoeducational cognitive-behavioral (PECB) treatment and waitlist control conditionsMB-EAT intervention: nine weekly and three monthly 1.5-hour group sessions included general, guided eating, mini, forgiveness, and walking meditations, seated yoga, body scan, and healing self-touch; homework included daily meditation and mindful eating practice• Significant reduction in binge eating episodes and quantity of food consumed during binge for MB-EAT and PECB groups compared to control group at 1-month follow-up (all P <0.05).
• Post-intervention difference occurred between MB-EAT and PECB in the change in hunger susceptibility (P <0.05), disinhibited eating (P <0.08), and food availability (P <0.07)
Miller et al., 2012; Miller et al., 2014 (7,12)Adults (63% female) aged 35–65 years with type 2 diabetes ≥1 year, BMI ≥27 kg/m2, and A1C ≥7% (n = 68)Randomized controlled trial with 1- and 3-month follow-up; comparison condition included DSMEMB-EAT-D intervention: eight weekly and two biweekly 2.5-hour group sessions included general, guided eating, mini, and forgiveness meditations and general information regarding nutrition and diabetes management; homework included meditation practice 6 days/week, mindful eating practice, and self-monitoring of food intake, activity, and glucose levels• Significant reduction in weight, A1C, energy intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load for MB-EAT-D and DSME groups at 3-month follow-up (all P ≤0.03); significant increase in servings of vegetable and fruit/fruit juice post-intervention and meat, fish, poultry, and eggs at 3-month follow-up for MB-EAT-D (all P ≤0.03)
• Significant reduction in eating self-efficacy, cognitive restraint of eating, disinhibited eating, and hunger susceptibility (all P <0.02) post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up for MB-EAT-D
Timmerman & Brown, 2012 (24)Perimenopausal women aged 40–59 years who reported eating out ≥3 times/week (n = 43)Randomized controlled trial with 6-week follow-up and waitlist control conditionMindful Restaurant Eating intervention: six weekly, 2-hour group sessions included personalized weekly goals, mindful eating and guided mindfulness meditations, and principles of weight management to prevent weight gain• Significant difference between groups post-intervention in mean energy and fat (grams) intake, diet-related self-efficacy, and barriers to managing intake when eating out (all P ≤0.02)
  • * Questionnaire(s) used to assess these outcomes are not specified. See study citations for a description of the other questionnaires used.