TABLE 1.

Patient Characteristics and Results of Univariate Analysis

Uncontrolled (N = 2,965)Controlled (N = 3,220)P*
Age in years, mean (SD)56.1 (14.5)55.8 (11.3)0.362
Sex, n (%)<0.001
 Female1,549 (52)1,871 (58)
 Male1,416 (48)1,349 (42)
Ethnicity, n (%)<0.001
 Hispanic or Latino2,097 (71)2,109 (65)
 Non-Hispanic or Latino831 (28)1,072 (33)
 Declined to report30 (1.0)39 (1.2)
Preferred language, n (%)0.512
 English1,278 (43)1,623 (50)
 Non-English1,297 (44)1,591 (49)
 Not reported390 (13)6 (0.2)
BMI, n (%)<0.001
 Nonobese (BMI < 30 kg/m2)1,238 (42)1,165 (36)
 Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)1,410 (48)1,853 (58)
 Not reported317 (11)202 (6.3)
Diabetes medications, n (%)
 Metformin2,195 (74)2,398 (75)0.691
 Other oral antidiabetics1,304 (44)908 (28)<0.001
 Insulin1,485 (50)654 (20)<0.001
 Other injectable antidiabetics135 (4.6)72 (2.2)<0.001
Psychiatric medications, n (%)
 Antipsychotic83 (2.8)101 (3.4)0.440
 Antianxiety agent18 (0.6)39 (1.2)0.013
 Mood stabilizer62 (2.1)75 (2.3)0.525
 Antidepressant651 (22)852 (26)<0.001
Visits with clinical pharmacist, n (%)<0.001
 One or more325 (11)107 (3.3)
 None2,640 (89)3,113 (97)
Appointment adherence, n (%)<0.001
 Good: missed <20% of visits1,373 (47)1,706 (53)
 Poor: missed ≥20% of visits1,592 (54)1,514 (47)
Education level, n (%)0.533
 High school graduate or college886 (30)1,194 (37)
 Less than high school graduate1,064 (36)1,381 (43)
 Not reported1,015 (34)645 (20)
Self-perceived health literacy, n (%)0.993
 Good2,020 (68)2,598 (81)
 Poor228 (7.7)293 (9.1)
 Not reported717 (24)329 (10)
Insurance status, n (%)0.038
 Insured1,757 (59)2,290 (71)
 Uninsured733 (25)844 (26)
 Not reported475 (16)86 (2.7)
Number of concurrent mental health diagnoses, n (%)0.045
 None2,430 (82)2,560 (80)
 1401 (14)503 (16)
 2 or more134 (4.5)157 (4.9)
PHQ-2 score, n (%)0.003
 Negative1,157 (39)1,499 (47)
 Positive301 (10)298 (9.3)
 Not reported1,507 (51)1,423 (44)
Self-perceived impact of physical or mental health on daily activities, n (%)0.0564
 Low (<2 weeks in the last month)1,377 (46)1,745 (54)
 High (>2 weeks in the last month)208 (7.0)279 (8.7)
 Not reported1,380 (47)1,196 (37)
Family or friend support, n (%)0.510
 Positive2,092 (71)2,704 (84)
 Negative42 (1.4)62 (1.9)
 Not reported831 (28)454 (14)
Food source, n (%)0.041
 Security777 (26)1,013 (31)
 Insecurity80 (2.7)74 (2.3)
 Not reported2,108 (71)2,133 (66)
  • * Values in boldface type indicate statistical significance.