TABLE 1

Study Demographics

VariablesParticipants
Diabetes diagnosis
 Type 1 diabetes180 (72.3)
 Type 2 diabetes69 (27.7)
Sex
 Female175 (70.3)
 Male74 (29.7)
Education level
 High school/general education diploma42 (17.9)
 Associate’s degree28 (11.2)
 Bachelor’s degree85 (34.1)
 Master’s degree73 (29.3)
 Doctoral degree15 (6.0)
 Professional degree6 (2.4)
Race
 White/Caucasian222 (89.5)
 Black/African American4 (1.6)
 American Indian/Alaska Native2 (0.8)
 Asian3 (1.2)
 Native Hawaiian/Native Islander1 (0.4)
 Hispanic/Latino10 (4.0)
 Other6 (2.4)
Age, years*
 <207 (2.8)
 20–2944 (17.7)
 30–3928 (11.3)
 40–4930 (12.1)
 50–5949 (19.8)
 60–6957 (23.0)
 70–7930 (12.1)
 >793 (1.2)
Duration of diabetes, years
 <1–547 (19.0)
 6–1030 (12.2)
 11–1527 (10.9)
 16–2042 (17.0)
 21–2520 (8.1)
 26–3017 (6.9)
 31–3515 (6.1)
 36–4014 (5.7)
 41–459 (3.6)
 46–5012 (4.9)
 51–556 (2.4)
 56–605 (2.0)
 >603 (1.2)
A1C, %7.06 ± 1.39
  • Data are n (%) except for A1C, which is mean ± SD.

  • * Mean age 49.9 years.

  • Mean duration of diabetes 21.3 years.