TABLE 4

Concomitant Medication Use by Period

Medication.Pre-Index Period,N = 1,582Post-Index PeriodN = 1,582Follow-Up Period,*N = 849
InsulinsIntermediate-acting153 (9.7)34 (2.1)40 (4.7)
Long-acting1,205 (76.2)251 (15.9)279 (32.9)
Premixed300 (19.0)30 (1.9)42 (4.9)
Rapid-acting1,076 (68.0)185 (11.7)235 (27.7)
Short-acting122 (7.7)28 (1.8)46 (5.4)
Any insulin1,502 (94.9)418 (26.4)788 (92.8)
Oral glucose-lowering therapiesDPP-4 inhibitor216 (13.7)90 (5.7)77 (9.1)
Metformin873 (55.2)594 (37.5)367 (43.2)
Thiazolidinediones190 (12.0)68 (4.3)47 (5.5)
Sulfonylurea375 (23.7)111 (7.0)72 (8.5)
SGLT2 inhibitor3 (0.2)21 (1.3)38 (4.5)
Any oral glucose-lowering therapies1,040 (65.7)704 (44.5)436 (51.4)
Noninsulin injectable therapyPramlintide105 (6.6)61 (3.9)29 (3.4)
GLP-1 RA172 (10.9)90 (5.7)56 (6.6)
Any noninsulin injectable268 (16.9)149 (9.4)83 (9.8)
  • Data are n (%). *Patients with gap of ≥60 days in the post-index period. DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist.